Category Archives: Prevention

Oct 27 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: October 27

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EBOLA UPDATE: New York State Walks Back New Ebola Quarantine Process—Somewhat—After Heavy Criticism
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
The state of New York has partially walked back its new quarantine process for health care workers returning from treating Ebola in West Africa after receiving heavy criticism from the federal government and health officials. New York Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo said health care workers who have been in contact with Ebola patients but show no signs of the virus must still be quarantined and monitored for 21 days, but may do so in their home.

The Obama administration’s criticism of the initial order was strong." We have let the governors of New York, New Jersey, and others states know that we have concerns with the unintended consequences of policies not grounded in science may have on efforts to combat Ebola at its source in West Africa," an Obama administration official said in a statement, according to Reuters. "We have also let these states know that we are working on new guidelines for returning healthcare workers that will protect the American people against imported cases, while, at the same time, enabling us to continue to tackle this epidemic in West Africa.” Read more on Ebola.

Survey: ‘Social Resilience’ More Valuable than Government Assistance in Helping a Community Feel Prepared for Disasters
“Social resilience”—the feeling of trust in a community, with neighbors helping neighbors and looking out for each other—can be more valuable than even government assistance when it comes to how prepared communities feel for disasters, according to a new Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research survey. In a survey of more than 1,000 residents in a dozen communities hit by the 2012 hurricane in New York and New Jersey, researchers found that “residents in areas where people say their neighbors actively seek to fix problems in the neighborhood are three times more likely to say their community is extremely or very prepared for a disaster than people in communities without such social resilience.”

Among the rest of the findings:

  • 37 percent of residents in areas reporting high levels of neighbors helping each other are very or extremely confident their neighborhood would recover quickly from a disaster, compared to 22 percent in areas with lower levels of neighborly cooperation
  • 69 percent of respondents said they got help from neighbors in recovering from the storm, while 57 percent said local government assisted them and 55 percent cited federal government agencies as helpful

“Having that level of trust, that preexisting level of trust means you sort of have this reservoir to draw from in times of need,” said the survey’s principal researcher Kathleen Cagney, a University of Chicago sociology professor and director of the Population Research Center at NORC at the University of Chicago. “Money doesn’t buy these informal reservoirs. You need to foster this.” Read more on preparedness.

Tips on Warding Off Seasonal Affective Disorder
The shorter, darker days of the fall season also mean the potential to trigger seasonal affective disorder (SAD), a type of depression that can leave some people feeling overly tired and lacking motivation to the point they find it extremely difficult to go about their day. As much as 5 percent of the population is affected by what is believed to be a chemical imbalance linked to reduced exposure to light. Angelos Halaris, MD, PhD, a professor in the department of psychiatry and behavioral neurosciences at Loyola University Chicago Stitch School of Medicine, said there are ways to reduce the likelihood of SAD, which can severely impact an individual’s quality of life:

  • Spend at least 30 minutes a day outside. Avoid wearing sunglasses during this period of time. If weather permits, expose the skin on your arms to the sun.
  • Keep your home well-lit. Open curtain and blinds to allow sunlight in. You can also consider buying a high-intensity light box specially designed for SAD therapy. Sit near the box for 30 to 45 minutes in the morning and at night. Be sure to talk to your doctor before attempting this type of light therapy on your own.
  • Physical activity releases endorphins and other brain chemicals that help you feel better and gain more energy. Exercising for 30 minutes daily can help.
  • When all else fails, there are medications that can help ease the troubling effects of SAD. Halaris recommends visiting a mental health professional if extra sun exposure, indoor lights and exercise are not effective in treating your symptoms.

Read more on prevention.

Oct 24 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: October 24

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EBOLA UPDATE: Medical Aid Worker Tests Positive in New York City
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
A hospitalized medical worker has tested positive for Ebola in New York City, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The medical aid worker had volunteered in Guinea. The patient is currently in isolation in Bellevue Hospital—one of eight New York State hospitals that Governor Cuomo designated to treat Ebola patients—as the CDC’s laboratory performs confirmation testing. Read more on Ebola.

HHS: $840M to Improve Patient Care While Reducing Costs
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has announced an $840 million initiative to improve patient care while also reducing costs, which will encourage patients to seek early preventive care more often. The initiative “will fund successful applicants who work directly with medical providers to rethink and redesign their practices, moving from systems driven by quantity of care to ones focused on patients’ health outcomes, and coordinated health care systems,” according to a release. Potential strategies include:

  • Giving doctors better access to patient information, such as information on prescription drug use to help patients take their medications properly
  • Expanding the number of ways patients are able communicate with the team of clinicians taking care of them
  • Improving the coordination of patient care by primary care providers, specialists, and the broader medical community
  • Using electronic health records on a daily basis to examine data on quality and efficiency

Read more on prevention.

EPA Announces $3M to Reduce Diesel Emissions from School Buses
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced approximately $3 million in funding to reduce diesel emissions from school buses. Through the EPA’s National Clean Diesel Rebate program, eligible public and private school bus fleet owners can apply for funding to replace school buses that have “older, dirtier” diesel engines, which will in turn improve air quality. "School buses are the safest and most environmentally friendly way to transport children to and from school," said Janet McCabe, acting assistant administrator for EPA’s Office of Air and Radiation, in a release. “The rebates to retrofit older bus engines will provide healthier rides for the 25 million children across the country who ride them on a daily basis.” Read more on air and water quality.

Oct 16 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: October 16

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EBOLA UPDATE: CDC May Add Some Health Care Workers to Federal No-Fly List
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
In response to the news that a Dallas nurse who tested positive for Ebola flew on a commercial airliner between when she was exposed to the disease and when she was diagnosed, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is considering adding the names of health care workers being monitored for Ebola to the government’s no-fly list, according to Fox News. Seventy workers who helped treat Ebola patient Thomas Edward Duncan at Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital are being monitored by the CDC. Read more on Ebola.

HUD: $38.3 Million to Enforce Fair Housing Practices
The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) has awarded $38.3 million to help enforce the Fair Housing Act through investigations of alleged discriminatory practices, as well as to educate housing providers, local governments and potential victims of housing discrimination about the Fair Housing Act. More than 100 fair housing organizations and other non-profit agencies in 43 states and the District of Columbia will share the funding, which is available through HUD’s Fair Housing Initiatives Program. “Ending housing discrimination is at the core of HUD’s mission and it takes dedicated people on the ground to address it,” said HUD Secretary Julián Castro, in a release. “These funds support community-based organizations that do great work every day on the front lines in the fight for fairness and equality in our nation’s housing market.” Read more on housing.

Study: Adults Who Are Comfortable With Aging More Likely to Seek Preventive Health Care
Older adults who are comfortable with aging are also more likely to be proactive in getting preventive health care services, according to a new study in the journal Preventive Medicine. One of the obstacles that keeps some older adults from seeking out preventive care is the belief that all their physical and mental declines are typical of old age. Researchers at the University of Michigan examined data on 6,177 participants age 50 and older. Among their findings for individuals who reported higher satisfaction with aging:

  • They were more likely to obtain a cholesterol test and colonoscopy over time
  • Women received a mammogram/X-ray or pap smear with greater frequency
  • Men made medical appointments more often to get a prostate exam

Read more on aging.

Oct 10 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: October 10

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EBOLA UPDATE: One-quarter of Americans View Ebola as a ‘Major Threat’ to the United States
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
The percentage of Americans who view Ebola as a “major threat” to the United States stands at 27 percent, up from only 13 percent in mid-September, according to a new Harris Poll/HealthDay survey. While saying that the fear is unwarranted, Mayo Clinic infectious diseases physician and researcher Pritish Tosh, MD, said the rising concern is also understandable. "Ebola is an agent that evokes a lot of fear, and can result in societal disruption," said Tosh, according to HealthDay. "There's a reason why it's considered a possible bioterrorism agent. So any time you have any cases in the United States, there is a heightened amount of anxiety." Read more on Ebola.

In-home Parenting Education Improves Mother’s Health, Behavior
In-home, intensive parenting and health education reduces illegal drug use, depression and behavior problems in pregnant American Indian teens, while also improving the likelihood that their children will reach behavioral and emotional milestones, according to a new study in the American Journal of Psychiatry. Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health analyzed 322 expectant American Indian teens in four Southwest communities, randomly assigning them to receive optimized care or optimized care plus 63 in-home education sessions, finding that the latter group saw greater improvements in various behaviors. "We found a consistent pattern of success across a number of different outcome measures," says the study's principal investigator John Walkup, MD, an adjunct professor at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and a faculty member within the Center for American Indian Health. "These early years are critical ones for children. We teach these mothers not only how to be competent parents, but how to cope with stressors and other risk factors that could impede positive parenting skills." Read more on maternal and infant health.

Study: Hospital Patients Don’t Wash their Hands Nearly Enough
Hospital patients aren’t washing their hands nearly enough, according to new research from McMaster University. Researchers analyzed the hand hygiene behavior of 279 adult patients in three multi-organ transplant units of a Canadian acute care teaching hospital over an eight-month period, finding they washed their hands about 30 percent of the time while in the washroom, 40 percent during meals and only 3 percent when using the kitchens in their rooms. "This is important because getting patients to wash their hands more could potentially reduce their risk of picking up infections in the hospital," said principal investigator Jocelyn Srigley, MD, an assistant professor of medicine at McMaster's Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine, in a release. Read more on prevention.

Oct 9 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: October 9

EBOLA UPDATE: Five U.S. Airports to Screen Travelers from Ebola-Affected Nations
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
On the same day that the Dallas, Tex., patient being treated for Ebola succumbed to the disease, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Department of Homeland Security's Customs & Border Protection (CBP) announced that travelers from Ebola-affected nations would undergo increased entry screening when arriving in five U.S. airports. New York's JFK, Washington-Dulles, Newark, Chicago-O'Hare and Atlanta international airports receive more than 94 percent of travelers from the West African nations. According to the CDC:

  • Travelers from Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone will be escorted by CBP to an area of the airport set aside for screening.
  • Trained CBP staff will observe them for signs of illness, ask them a series of health and exposure questions and provide health information for Ebola and reminders to monitor themselves for symptoms. Trained medical staff will take their temperature with a non-contact thermometer.
  • If the travelers have fever, symptoms or the health questionnaire reveals possible Ebola exposure, they will be evaluated by a CDC quarantine station public health officer. The public health officer will again take a temperature reading and make a public health assessment. Travelers, who after this assessment, are determined to require further evaluation or monitoring will be referred to the appropriate public health authority.
  • Travelers from these countries who have neither symptoms/fever nor a known history of exposure will receive health information for self-monitoring.

Read more on Ebola.

Study: College Athletes in Contact Sports at Increased MRSA Risk
College athletes in contact sports are at increased risk of carrying and being infected with the superbug methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), according to a new study presented this morning at IDWeek. In a two-year study, researchers determined that contact sport athletes were more than twice as likely as non-contact athletes to be colonized with MRSA. Colonization with MRSA ranged from 8 to 31 percent in contact sports athletes, compared to 0 to 23 percent of non-contact athletes; 5 to 10 percent of the general population is colonized with MRSA. "This study shows that even outside of a full scale outbreak, when athletes are healthy and there are no infections, there are still a substantial number of them who are colonized with these potentially harmful bacteria," said Natalia Jimenez-Truque, PhD, MSCI, research instructor, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tenn., in a release "Sports teams can decrease the spread of MRSA by encouraging good hygiene in their athletes, including frequent hand washing and avoiding sharing towels and personal items such as soap and razors." Read more on prevention.

ACS: Overweight and Obese African-Americans, Whites at Similar Risk for Premature Death
Overweight and obese African-Americans and whites are at similar risk for premature death, according to a new study in the journal PLOS ONE. The findings contradict previous, smaller studies which indicated the link was less strong for African-Americans. For the study, researchers from the American Cancer Society analyzed data from the Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II), which included approximately one million men and women. “While recent large studies have examined the relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality in white and Asian populations in the United States, this relationship has not been well-characterized in African Americans,” said Alpa V. Patel, PhD, in a release. “The American Cancer Society’s Cancer Prevention Study-II is very well-suited to address this issue because of its large size, including nearly a million participants, and long-term follow-up of 28 years, making it the largest study to date in African Americans.” Read more on obesity.

Oct 8 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: October 8

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EBOLA UPDATE: Kaiser Infographic Lays Out the Key Statistics
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
A new infographic on the current Ebola outbreak produced by the Kaiser Family Foundation and published in the Journal of the American Medical Association breaks down the crisis into key elements, including the disease count so far, the rate of response and the key U.S. government agencies charged with addressing the outbreak. Key numbers include:

  • Fatality rate — 53 percent which is lower than in previous outbreaks
  • Outbreak geography — In the current outbreak, five West African countries that have never had Ebola cases are now battling the disease including Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, Senegal and Sierra Leone
  • U.S. agencies responding — Department of Defense, Department of States, U.S. Agency for International Development, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Food and Drug Administration and the National Institutes of Health

The World Health Organization also maintains a dedicated Ebola information website that is updated frequently and includes case counts, studies, policy announcements and feature stories about aid in West Africa. Read more on Ebola.

CDC: 2.5M Emergency Department Visits for Vehicle Crashes in 2012
Motor vehicle crashes sent more than 2.5 million people to emergency departments (EDs) and led to more than 200,000 people being hospitalized in 2012, according to a new report from the U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All told, the lifetime medical costs for these crash injuries will be $18 billion and the lifetime work lost will be an estimated $33 billion. “In 2012, nearly 7,000 people went to the emergency department every day due to car crash injuries,” said CDC Principal Deputy Director Ileana Arias, PhD, in a release. “Motor vehicle crash injuries occur all too frequently and have health and economic costs for individuals, the health care system, and society.  We need to do more to keep people safe and reduce crash injuries and medical costs.” Read more on injury prevention.

Task Force Recommends Diabetes Screening for All Americans Over Age 45
Everyone over the age of 45 should be screening annually for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes, according to new recommendations from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. "For people with abnormal blood sugar, changes in their lifestyle, such as eating healthier and exercising more often, can help prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes,” said Michael Pignone, MD, a task force member, in a release. “The best way to do that is to participate in a program that supports these behaviors. That's why we're recommending that people who are at increased risk be screened." According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 29.1 million Americans have diabetes, although 8.1 million of those cases are undiagnosed. Read more on prevention.

Oct 7 2014
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Drug Abuse Control Gets a New, Important Rule

Later this week a final rule goes into effect from the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) aimed at reducing the misuse of controlled substances. The new rule will allow pharmacies and other approved outlets to accept unused controlled substances from people who want them out of their home so they can’t be abused by people with no medical need for the medications.

Previously, the drugs could only be disposed of at home, brought to a law enforcement agency or brought to one of two annual community “take back” days that the DEA started in 2011. Unused drugs are often found in homes because physicians typically prescribe thirty days’ worth of painkillers after surgery or illness, which can lead to addiction or to the drugs being left in home medicine cabinets where they are ripe for misuse.

Under the rule, certain outlets (including manufacturers, distributors, narcotic treatment programs, retail pharmacies and hospitals/clinics with an on-site pharmacy) can apply to the DEA to become authorized collectors. The public can find authorized collectors in their communities by calling the DEA Office of Diversion Control’s Registration Call Center at 1-800-882-9539.

Experts say the rule is a good start toward getting millions of controlled substances out of the hands of abusers and potential abusers. Data clearly demonstrates the need:

  • According to the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, almost twice as many Americans (6.8 million) currently abuse pharmaceutical controlled substances than those using cocaine, hallucinogens, heroin and inhalants combined.
  • Nearly 110 Americans die every day from drug-related overdoses, and about half of those overdoses are related to opioids, a class of drug that includes prescription painkillers and heroin.
  • More than two-thirds of people who misuse prescription painkillers for the first time report obtaining the drugs from friends or relatives, including from a home medicine cabinet.

Writing for the Network for Public Health Law blog, lawyer Corey Davis said that while the new rule doesn’t address some key issues—such as who will pay for the returned drugs to be destroyed and whether pharmacies will face any liability if returned drugs are stolen—“it’s an important step forward in drug abuse and overdose prevention.” 

Read more

Sep 30 2014
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Have a Story about Implementing the National Prevention Strategy? The Office of the Surgeon General Wants to Hear It

The National Prevention Strategy (NPS), a federal-level initiative coordinated by the Office of the Surgeon General (OSG), was launched three years ago with the goal of promoting prevention and improving the nation’s health by engaging all sectors, not just health care.

Communities across the country are hard at work integrating different sectors in the joint purpose. For example, transportation agencies and senior health agencies are working to improve travel logistics for seniors who have different needs and schedules than the average commuter. The benefits for seniors can be many and huge, including engaging in social activities, recreation, timely visits to doctors, access to food shopping and greater independence.

In its 2014 required annual status report to the president and Congress on the progress of implementing the National Prevention Strategy, the OSG shared for the first time stories—called Partner Implementation Models (PIMs)—about communities and organizations implementing the strategies. One PIM showcased the work of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF), including:

  • In 2013, RWJF re-convened the Commission to Build a Healthier America—an interdisciplinary group of leaders in the public, nonprofit and private sectors originally brought together in 2008—to develop recommendations to reduce health disparities. The Commission’s January 2014 report references the National Prevention Strategy.
  • RWJF’s County Health Rankings & Roadmaps show how health is influenced by where people live, learn, work and play. Counties are ranked using data on health behaviors; clinical care; the physical environment; and social and economic factors such as family and social support. In 2014, new measures related to housing, transit, access to mental health providers, injury-related deaths, food environment and exercise opportunities were added to the Rankings. All of these measures directly reinforce the priorities outlined in the National Prevention Strategy.

Another PIM was shared by the Henry Ford Health System (HFHS) in Detroit, Mich., the fifth-largest employer in the city, which launched Henry Ford LiveWell (HF LiveWell) to improve the health of HFHS employees, patients, and surrounding communities. 

Read more

Sep 26 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: September 26

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EBOLA UPDATE: American Physician Declared Ebola-Free, Released From Hospital
(NewPublicHealth is monitoring the public health crisis in West Africa.)
Rick Sacra, MD, an American physician who was working in an obstetrics clinic in Liberia when he became infected with the Ebola virus, has been cleared as disease-free by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and released from The Nebraska Medical Center. He entered the facility, which includes one of the United States’ few biocontainment units, three weeks ago. Kenty Brantly, MD, who was previously and successfully treated for Ebola at Emory Hospital in Atlanta, had donated two pints of his blood for Sacra’s treatment. Read more on Ebola.

UTHealth to Use $1.3M Grant to Study Asthma Risk for Health Care Workers
As asthma prevalence continues to rise across the country, the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) School of Public Health will utilize a four-year, $1.3 million grant from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to study how the risk of asthma has changed for Texas health care workers over the past decade. The health care field is one of the population groups that see a higher risk for the breathing disorder. For the study, researchers will repeat a 2003 survey which found that, after entering the field, 7.3 percent of nurses and 4.2 to 5.6 percent of doctors, respiratory therapists and occupational therapists developed asthma. “Practices in hospitals have changed in 10 years. There are new cleaning chemicals, including many environmentally friendly ones, but are those products without risk? We want to find out,” said George Delclos, MD, PhD, co-principal investigator and professor in the Division of Epidemiology, Human Genetics & Environmental Sciences at the UTHealth School of Public Health. Read more on health disparities.

HHS: $212M to Strengthen State, Local Programs Designed to Prevent Chronic Diseases
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) announced yesterday that it will award nearly $212 million in grants to help all 50 states and the District of Columbia strengthen efforts to prevent chronic diseases. A total of 193 awards will go to state and local programs, and are funded in part through the Affordable Care Act. “Tobacco use, high blood pressure, and obesity are leading preventable causes of death in the United States,” said U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Director Tom Frieden, MD, MPH, in a release. “These grants will enable state and local health departments, national and community organizations, and other partners from all sectors of society to help us prevent heart disease, cancer, stroke, and other leading chronic diseases, and help Americans to live longer, healthier, and more productive lives.” Read more on prevention.

Aug 15 2014
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Public Health News Roundup: August 15

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HHS: $250M to Expand Access to High-Quality Preschools
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has announced that applications are now available for the $250 million Preschool Development Grants competition, which was established to build, develop and expand voluntary, high-quality preschool programs in high-need communities for children from low- and moderate-income families. “When we invest in early education, the benefits can last a lifetime,” said HHS Secretary Sylvia M. Burwell, in a release. “Children who attend high-quality early learning and preschool programs are more likely to do well in school and secure good jobs down the road. We all gain when our country has a stronger, more productive workforce, lower crime rates, and less need for public assistance. These Preschool Development Grants will help put more children on the path to opportunity.” Read more on education.

Study: Three Common Respiratory Illnesses Linked to Higher Risk of Lung Cancer
Chronic bronchitis, emphysema and pneumonia are all tied to an increased risk of lung cancer, according to a new study in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. Researchers analyzed data on more than 250,000 people, concluding that the reason for the increased risk could relate to underlying disease mechanisms. They also said that a better understanding of the respiratory diseases could affect how doctors monitor and help patients. Read more on prevention.

FDA: More Data Needed on Painkiller’s Abuse-Deterrent Capability
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has requested additional study and information to determine the effectiveness of an abuse-deterrent capability in an experimental painkiller. Acura Pharmaceuticals states that its drug, which contains the common painkillers hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen, cannot be abused by snorting. The drug is designed to cause a burning sensation when snorted or form a gelatinous mixture when prepared for injection. However, the drug failed in a mid-stage trial to show a statistically significant likelihood of reducing abuse. Read more on substance abuse.