Category Archives: Prevention
Tomorrow, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Infection (CDC) will hold a conference call for medical personnel. The call will review and underline safeguards needed to help protect health workers who will be called on to help with care for U.S. Ebola patients, should more cased be diagnosed.
The first patient diagnosed with Ebola in the United States died in Dallas last week; a second, a nurse who looked after that patient, was confirmed yesterday by the CDC to have the virus. She is in isolation in a Dallas hospital.
CDC director Tom Frieden, MD, MPH, said the infected nurse may have contracted the disease through a “breach in protective gear protocol.” However, Ezekiel Emanuel, MD, a bioethicist and professor at the University of Pennsylvania, said this morning on MSNBC that he thought the problem was not so much a breach as the need for greater implementation. Medical checklist guru Atul Gawande, MD, agrees. In a short piece titled “Ebola is Stoppable” in The New Yorker last week, Gawande wrote “The main challenge is taking off the protective personal equipment—that’s when it is easiest to contaminate yourself.”
Public health experts are assessing what changes to make to reduce the chance of transmission without making suiting up so cumbersome that health workers are tempted to skip steps. At yesterday’s press conference, Frieden said that there have been reports out of West Africa of health workers who contaminated themselves when they pricked themselves with a clean needle that came in contact with contaminated gloves. For now, the procedures laid out in posters from the CDC on how to don and remove protective clothing remain in place.
>>Bonus Link: Over the weekend, an article in the Los Angeles Times questioned a key component of assessing people who may be infected with Ebola—assuming that they are not contagious if they don’t have fever. The study, funded by the World Health Organization and published online last month in the New England Journal of Medicine, analyzed data on 3,343 confirmed and 667 probable cases of Ebola, finding that thirteen percent did not have a fever. U.S. public health experts told the Times that they continue to view fever as the key indicator that the virus is transmissible to other people.
In connection with Domestic Violence Awareness Month, held each October, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently issued a stark report which found that sexual violence not only results in high rates of injury and death, but also other long-lasting and even lifetime health impacts. To best share the specifics of the report, the CDC created an infographic with the most striking numbers—including how many men are raped each year and how people under the age of five are sexually abused.
>>View the full infographic.
Perhaps most striking, the CDC found that a substantial proportion of U.S. female and male adults have experienced some form of sexual violence, stalking, or intimate partner violence at least once during their lifetimes.
Among the report’s recommended public health actions:
- Prevention of sexual violence must include the protection of young children.
- Strategies to prevent sexual violence must include strategies that address known risk factors for perpetration and emphasize changing social norms and behaviors by using bystander and other prevention strategies.
- Primary prevention of intimate partner violence should be focused on the promotion of healthy relationship behaviors and other protective factors, with the goal of helping adolescents develop positive behaviors before their first relationships.
>>Bonus Link: CDC’s Center for Injury Prevention and Control offers many resources on sexual violence prevention geared toward people of different ages and communities.
Have a Story about Implementing the National Prevention Strategy? The Office of the Surgeon General Wants to Hear It
The National Prevention Strategy (NPS), a federal-level initiative coordinated by the Office of the Surgeon General (OSG), was launched three years ago with the goal of promoting prevention and improving the nation’s health by engaging all sectors, not just health care.
Communities across the country are hard at work integrating different sectors in the joint purpose. For example, transportation agencies and senior health agencies are working to improve travel logistics for seniors who have different needs and schedules than the average commuter. The benefits for seniors can be many and huge, including engaging in social activities, recreation, timely visits to doctors, access to food shopping and greater independence.
In its 2014 required annual status report to the president and Congress on the progress of implementing the National Prevention Strategy, the OSG shared for the first time stories—called Partner Implementation Models (PIMs)—about communities and organizations implementing the strategies. One PIM showcased the work of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF), including:
- In 2013, RWJF re-convened the Commission to Build a Healthier America—an interdisciplinary group of leaders in the public, nonprofit and private sectors originally brought together in 2008—to develop recommendations to reduce health disparities. The Commission’s January 2014 report references the National Prevention Strategy.
- RWJF’s County Health Rankings & Roadmaps show how health is influenced by where people live, learn, work and play. Counties are ranked using data on health behaviors; clinical care; the physical environment; and social and economic factors such as family and social support. In 2014, new measures related to housing, transit, access to mental health providers, injury-related deaths, food environment and exercise opportunities were added to the Rankings. All of these measures directly reinforce the priorities outlined in the National Prevention Strategy.
Another PIM was shared by the Henry Ford Health System (HFHS) in Detroit, Mich., the fifth-largest employer in the city, which launched Henry Ford LiveWell (HF LiveWell) to improve the health of HFHS employees, patients, and surrounding communities.
Sexual assaults on college campuses have grabbed headlines in recent months and for good reason: One in five U.S. women are raped or otherwise sexually assaulted during their college years, often during their freshman or sophomore year and often by someone they know. Last winter, President Obama established the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault. This marked a call to action to help prevent sexual assaults on campuses; to help schools respond effectively when an assault does occur; and strengthen federal enforcement efforts, including the launch of a website to make with various resources for students and schools.
Meanwhile, various colleges and universities have stepped up their own sexual assault prevention efforts. The Indiana Campus Sexual Assault Primary Prevention Project guides Indiana colleges and universities in the prevention of sexual violence through education and technical assistance; as well as the promotion of bystander intervention skills and healthy, respectful relationships.
Earlier this year, the University of Massachusetts Amherst launched a program called UMatter at UMass, which promotes “active bystander intervention” to prevent sexual assaults. The program uses “Three Ds” to help someone who witnesses a situation where a sexual assault is threatened know what to do:
- “Direct": Stepping in and confronting dangerous behavior in a direct and clear—but non-confrontational—way
- “Distract”: Using tactics that will divert behavior before it becomes violent or harmful
- “Delegate”: Enlisting help from acquaintances or law enforcement professionals to help prevent an assault
“Our simple starting point was our determination to build a more caring community, cementing the idea that we care about each other at UMass and that we demonstrate that care without first having a crisis or tragedy,” said Enku Gelaye, vice chancellor for student affairs and campus life at UMass. “With active bystanders, we want to reinforce a culture of active engagement. This is a very specific concept. The idea is that students have to take an active role in monitoring their environment and being engaged and caring about each other.”
If you’re reading this, then YOU can prevent wildfires. Also forest fires.
Both are indelible messages from Smokey Bear—an icon of public health and a friendly face from everyone’s childhood—who is celebrating his 70th birthday. Born August 9, 1944, the creation of the U.S. Forest Service and the Ad Council has over the decades become the center of the longest-running PSA campaign in U.S. history.
As part of the birthday celebration, the U.S. Forest Service and the National Association of State Foresters have launched a new round of PSAs featuring outdoor enthusiasts thanking Smokey for his years of work.
Since the campaign’s launch in 1944, the average number of acres burned by wildfires has decreased from 22 million to 6.7 million. However, they still remain one of the country’s most critical environmental issues—as well as one of its most misunderstood. While many people believe that lightning is the cause of most wildfires, the reality is the vast majority—9 out of 10—are manmade. The causes range from unattended campfires and burning debris on a windy day to improperly discarded smoking materials and operating equipment without spark arrestors.
This week, the National Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health Council (National Prevention Council) submitted its annual status report to the President and designated Congressional committees describing national progress in meeting specific prevention, health promotion and public health goals defined in the National Prevention Strategy first released three years ago. The National Prevention Strategy is required under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and has the overarching goal of increasing the number of Americans who are healthy at every stage of life.
The goal of the annual report is to show how cabinet-level agencies are working across the federal government to incorporate health in diverse sectors—such as housing, transportation and education—to advance the National Prevention Strategy and influence the health of individuals, families and communities. The status report also highlights how private- and public-sector partners across the country are advancing the National Prevention Strategy in organizations ranging from health care systems to national foundations.
Federal agency highlights for the past twelve months include:
- Continued support for smoke-free housing by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
- Smoking cessation initiatives by the U.S. Department of Defense for its troops and their families
- Pedestrian safety promotion efforts from the U.S. Department of Transportation
- School-based healthy food initiatives from the U.S. Department of Education
The report also includes status updates from several partner organization promoting health and wellness, including the American Public Health Association; the Henry Ford Health System; the Delaware Department of Health and Social Services; and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The health promotion efforts of these organizations over the last year includes the fifth annual release of the County Health Rankings, which shows how health is influenced by where we live, learn, work and play.
Read interviews and listen to podcasts with federal agency leaders about the National Prevention Strategy on NewPublicHealth.
A report from a White House Task Force on sexual assaults on campus several weeks ago found that one in five women have been attacked, but only about 12 percent of the attacks are ever reported, often because of a campus climate that places blame on women and sends messages to men that sexual attacks are manly. The task force is asking colleges and universities to survey their students about sexual assault and other “campus climate” issues, and to track assaults and enforcement of campus policies that govern such assaults.
One idea gaining traction for reducing sexual assaults is called bystander intervention, which not only trains individuals to find safe ways to help prevent assaults, but seeks to change the campus cultures that can condone attacks.
NewPublicHealth recently spoke with Dorothy Edwards, executive director of Green Dot etc., which provides training for high schools and colleges on bystander intervention.
NewPublicHealth: Where does the name Green Dot come from?
Dorothy Edwards: Well, two different ways. I started my career in the field in Texas and for whatever reason for Sexual Assault Awareness Month green was the color of the ribbons. What was more intentional was the “dots” piece. That came out of one of the challenges in mobilizing bystanders to prevention, which is that this issue feels so big. People have been hearing about it for decades and I think there’s a kind of resignation that has settled in. Because when you hear the same number over and over and programs come and programs go and it’s an issue this big, people can just feel that there’s nothing they can do about it. “I’m one person, I can’t change this.”
So, one of the original challenges when we were playing with this idea of bystander intervention and highlighting more the integral role of this kind of third character—apart from victim and perpetrator—was that we knew in order for it to be effective it wasn’t just about skill and knowledge, it was about giving people a sense of possibility, giving people a sense of manageability. And when you say the word dot, a dot is small. So instead of saying we’ve got to change the whole culture, we’ve got to change all college campuses, we’ve got to change sexual assault—which feels so big—we can say to people, gosh, all we need you to actually deal with is a single green dot, a single moment, a single choice. And suddenly something very big feels very small and manageable
May is stroke awareness month and a new infographic from the American Stroke Association wants everyone to know minutes count when a stroke hits. The campaign uses research published by the Association this year in the campaign infographic to let people know that for each minute shaved off stroke response in a hospital, patients get back days of healthy living.
The infographic includes the FAST warning signs and symptoms for stroke:
- Face drooping
- Arm weakness
- Speech difficulty
- Time to call 911
>>Bonus Content: The American Stroke Association has a site full of patient education resources on stroke awareness and prevention, including a very effective PSA on body language to help teach the FAST warning signs of stroke. The association also previously created another infographic on the FAST warning signs.
NewPublicHealth continues its coverage of National Public Health Week with today’s theme—“Get Out Ahead” on prevention.
According to the American Public Health Association (APHA), seven in 10 deaths in the United States are related to preventable diseases such as obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease and cancer. And while 75 percent of U.S. health care dollars are spent treating such diseases, only 3 percent of health care dollars go toward prevention.
The APHA says there are now more options than ever when it comes to preventive health measures and that public health and clinical health professionals must work collaboratively to help individuals identify and pursue the best preventative health options.
A strong way to help prevent disease and premature death is to add health observance dates such as National Breast Cancer Awareness Month and National HIV Testing Day to personal and community calendars.
Healthfinder.gov, a website from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, lists health observance days, weeks and months which can steer people toward information and resources. Health observances often include community screenings such as blood pressure and cholesterol checks, making it easy to have those tests on a weekend in your neighborhood. Those checks include resources guiding people to community care if tests show a potential health problem.
A critical observance in April is Alcoholism Awareness Month. Decades of data shows that drinking too much alcohol increases people’s risk of health-related injuries, violence, drowning, liver disease and some types of cancer.
Actions communities are taking in observance of Alcoholism Awareness Month include:
- Partnering with a local high school or youth organization to host an event about alcohol abuse prevention.
- Alcohol-free community block parties.
- Many local health clinics will offer free or low-cost screenings for alcohol abuse on National Alcohol Screening Day (April 11).
Many police stations are hosting Family Information Nights about the dangers of drinking and driving. Activities include special goggles that let kids and teens see how drinking can impact their vision behind the wheel.
Recently, we’ve been pleased to see increased engagement across a number of posts on NewPublicHealth, particularly from public health students. Reader comments have pointed a justly critical eye toward the way studies are often interpreted and presented. This level of conversation is critical to informing and bolstering NewPublicHealth’s coverage of public health news and issues.
We have compiled a handful of reader comments below, in an effort to continue the discussion.
- Readers shared their opinions on a survey showing that Hispanic adults are not confident in their understanding of insurance terms:
- “Although the concern of this study was the disparity between white literacy and non-white literacy, general focus should be placed on understanding for people in all racial categories. A lack of health literacy leads to many issues in health care, often resulting in ineffectiveness of care.” — Jessica H.
- “The study regarding the lack of understanding of key insurance terms is interesting because while it specifically shows low-literacy levels in Hispanics, it points to a larger problem in America. Relative to this study, literacy levels were highest in Whites and lowest in Hispanics. Overall, the literacy levels were universally low. This is a problem because being unable to understand insurance terms would lead to less effective use of the insurance, or no insurance at all.” — Michael
- Readers also questioned the validity of a study that found many parents support flu shots at school, based on concerns regarding data collection methods and information presentation biases:
- “Regarding the study that found that many parents support flu shots at school: The survey used in this study was given in English, but it was found that people most likely to agree to have their children vaccinated in a school setting included parents of uninsured children...If children are not insured, it usually means the parents are not insured and have jobs that do not provide health benefits. Immigrants usually work these kinds of jobs, and probably do not speak English well. So, if the survey was only given in English, this could influence the results of the study...” — Brittany
- “Surveys aren’t the best method of collecting data. Secondly, the convenience portion, which includes vaccine beliefs and or skipping past vaccines greatly contributed to the unwillingness to consent...And this would create a high stated consent rate, due to parental preferences based on location...Lastly, although the author wrote this study with intentions of public health official’s consideration to this topic I would be concerned since this study is the first to provide this information and does however contain many biases.” — Cora Neville
- “The article mentions that only parents who answered with a yes or not sure were asked follow up questions. If a parent answered no, was there a question that asked why they would not consent?...I think collecting data on those who declined the school-located vaccination would help future researchers find a way to get those parents who originally declined to consent.” — Shannen Mincey
- Many people in the public health field have publicly weighed in on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s proposed changes to food labels, including NewPublicHealth readers:
- I think some parts of this new regulation will be good for consumers while others will simply be a futile effort to help consumers eat better. For example, I believe adding “added sugars” to the label will be effective in identifying the bad sugar...One change that could be helpful for consumers would be to identify the types of fiber. Although the label includes total dietary fiber, this can be misleading to consumers who may not realize they are not getting nutritional value out of all of it.” — Jessica H.
- “Food labels need to be more understandable and consumer friendly. The Healthy People Campaign and health advocates, such as Michelle Obama want America to take responsibility for their health, yet the consumers have to dissect every food label to get a proper gauge of the nature of the food they’re consuming... On the same token, I think it is going to take a great deal of further research to determine what would be considered “better align[ed] with how much people really eat.’” — Vanessa Moses
Thank you to all our readers who have made their opinions known. Let’s keep these conversations going!